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What Is Blockchain Trilemma? How Can We Solve It?

Blockchain, a leader in innovation, is one of the most exciting sectors in the world, driving the development of new technologies and frequently changing the paradigm. The blockchain trilemma is one of the most well-known obstacles that developers and innovators in the cryptocurrency sector have worked tirelessly to solve as the industry has grown.

The Blockchain Trilemma: What Is It?

We must first examine the blockchain concept to understand the blockchain trilemma. Blockchain is a public, shared, immutable database or ledger where the transactions recorded are unchangeable. The three most important characteristics of blockchain are decentralization, scalability, and security.

By being decentralized, a blockchain allows for equal participation from all parties in its creation and verification. Blockchain administration is divided among members throughout the whole network, making it more decentralized and secure than if a single body managed it. The decentralized network is more open and accessible than the conventional Internet.

Blockchain security entails that it should be able to fend off efforts by wrong parties to gain control of it. The price of maintaining complete blockchain system control is typically used to gauge security. A blockchain is considered more secure if it is more expensive to manipulate.

Scalability describes the capacity and speed of the blockchain to handle transactions. The fundamental functionality of a blockchain is scalability, and the most crucial indicator for assessing a blockchain’s scalability is transaction per second (TPS). It is essential to raise the TPS and enhance the scalability of blockchain since it is generally acknowledged that a relatively low TPS is one of the primary reasons that blockchains like Bitcoin have not been widely embraced in the first place.

Security, decentralization, and scalability—the three properties mentioned above—are the fundamental core of blockchain technology. Even though the technology constantly evolves, everyone agrees that an “ideal” blockchain should simultaneously be decentralized, safe, and scalable. However, industry producers and developers frequently discover that it is exceedingly challenging to address all three problems simultaneously. When building a blockchain, it is often necessary to sacrifice one feature to benefit the other two; this situation is known as the “blockchain trilemma.”

A Perfect Example Of The Trilemma Of Blockchain; Bitcoin

An illustration of the blockchain dilemma is the scalability of bitcoin. Although Bitcoin is a fantastic invention, its platform is not the most scalable. However, the Bitcoin platform is among the internet’s most secure and decentralized. Due to its less than optimum transaction speeds, it has regrettably developed a bad image regarding scalability. It is less than ideal if you want to utilize it as money. Since the competition processes transactions in milliseconds, card processors like Visa and Mastercard outperform Bitcoin in this regard. Although the Lightning Network has helped to resolve this issue, this Layer 2 scaling method still has several drawbacks. In the end, any cryptocurrency that wants to function as a fiat currency must be scalable enough.

Many raised whether or not all three traits could be accomplished in a single network. Developers have concluded that it is impossible to achieve all three aspects and that the only option is to make do with what is now technologically feasible while working out how to make the necessary trade-offs in a practical setting. While every project works to optimize its network, every blockchain architecture will have certain flaws. Therefore, developers must determine how much of each attribute they are ready to give up to attain maximum performance.

Different Approaches to the Blockchain Trilemma Solana(SOL) 

Solana uses enterprise-grade servers and a Proof of Stake (PoS) technology to attempt to resolve the blockchain trilemma. It relies on synchronization and a limited number of servers to accomplish blockchain decentralization. There are issues with blockchain decentralization despite this, nevertheless. The server cost is often around $10,000, and joining the processing cluster requires staking thousands of dollars, which is typically only an option for large companies and wealthy people. As only a few people can fund SOL, this hinders decentralization initiatives.

Polkadot (DOT)

With the capacity to quickly establish a customized blockchain, Polkadot provides a revolutionary data availability and validity scheme to enable various blockchains to interact.

This implies that you obtain both interoperability and security. To achieve energy efficiency, it makes use of a next-generation POS platform. The Relay Chain and Parachain are the fundamental components of this blockchain. It is a significant advance on Solana because it uses validators to guarantee network consensus.

Cardano (ADA)

One of the most ecologically friendly protocols, Cardano has this to offer. Because it employs the Ouroboros secure blockchain system, it has built-in security. However, processing speed is sacrificed for security. Therefore, the network doesn’t handle transactions as quickly as some others. However, because it lacks the enormous processing needs necessary for a network like Solana, joining the network is much simpler.

Fantom (FTM)

According to Fantom, the blockchain trilemma problem has been resolved. One of the most popular crypto coins, its network provides more than 200 DApps. The network can attain the claimed speed, security, and dependability thanks to Fantom’s aBFT consensus technology. The validator nodes of Fantom, which assist in establishing it as a trustless and leaderless system, are another element of the company’s approach to the blockchain trilemma. With Fantom and FTM, blockchain decentralization is therefore greatly enhanced.

Avalanche (AVAX)

The Avalanche network has yet another effective strategy for controlling the blockchain trilemma’s restrictions. They mainly achieve their blockchain’s decentralization by rewarding users who stake and manage validator nodes. The fact that these benefits are such great means that potential validators don’t need to invest a lot of tokens to get started.

Avalanche has impressively low hardware requirements, too. For less than 1/100th the cost of the gear required to start as a validator on the Solana network, one can start with less costly hardware.

The scalability and decentralization of the blockchain depend on validators. But few individuals are motivated to work as validators. In many cases, doing so is too expensive or difficult to do, restricting its advantages to a select few.

The Blockchain Dilemma: Is It Solvable?

When considering how to resolve the blockchain trilemma, there is no one solution. The Holy Grail cannot be attained, in theory. The most we can do right now is to maximize each blockchain’s potential to fulfill its declared purpose. Future generations may access networks with exponentially greater network transfer speeds and almost unlimited computing capacity. The blockchain trilemma might be resolved relatively quickly in that situation. Transaction speeds would be accelerated “to the moon,” which would solve the issue.


For most developers, the blockchain trilemma is currently a significant issue. Like everything else, we have a considerably higher chance of solving a problem if we know its exact nature. We should share their optimism as many developers are working on the blockchain trilemma’s difficulties.

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What Is Blockchain Security?

The data format created by blockchain technology has built-in security features. It is based on consensus, decentralization, and cryptographic principles to guarantee transaction trust. Most distributed ledger technologies (DLT) and blockchain systems group data into blocks, each containing a transaction or sequence of transactions. A cryptographic chain is almost impossible to alter since every new block connects to every block that came before it. Each transaction within a block is verified and approved by a consensus mechanism, ensuring its veracity and accuracy.

Blockchain technology offers decentralization by enabling participation from members of a distributed network. The transaction record cannot be changed by a single user, and there is no single point of failure. However, blockchain technology differs significantly in terms of security.

What Are The Security Differences Between Blockchain Types?

Blockchain networks might differ regarding who can participate and who controls the data. Networks are often classified as public or private based on who is permitted to join and permissionless or permissioned based on how members access the network.

Public Blockchain

Public blockchain networks often enable anybody to join and members to remain anonymous. A public blockchain validates transactions and achieves consensus using internet-connected machines. Bitcoin is the most well-known public blockchain example, and it obtains consensus through “bitcoin mining.” The bitcoin network’s computers, or “miners,” attempt to solve a complicated cryptographic challenge to generate proof of work and confirm the transaction. This network has few identification and access constraints other than public keys.

Private Blockchain

Private blockchains usually allow only known organizations to join and utilize identities to validate membership and access credentials. The groups join together to build a secret, members-only “business network.” In a permissioned network, a private blockchain obtains consensus using a process known as “selective endorsement,” in which recognized users validate the transactions. Members can only maintain the transaction ledger with particular access and permissions. More identification and access constraints are required for this network type.

When developing a blockchain application, it is crucial to determine which form of the network would best meet your business objectives. For laws and regulatory reasons, private and permissioned networks are ideal. On the other hand, public and permissionless networks can achieve more decentralization and diffusion.

Public blockchains are open to the public, and anybody may join and validate transactions.

Private blockchains are mainly restricted to commercial networks. A single organization or consortium controls membership.

The number of processors participating in a permissionless blockchain is not limited.

Permissioned blockchains are only accessible to a specific group of users who have been issued identities via certificates.


While blockchain technology generates a tamper-proof database of transactions, blockchains are not susceptible to cyberattacks and fraud. Those with malicious intent can exploit known blockchain technology flaws and have succeeded in various hacks and scams. 

How Do Scammers Exploit Blockchain Technology?

Hackers and fraudsters threaten blockchains in four ways: phishing, routing, Sybil, and 51 percent assaults.

Phishing Attempts

Phishing is a fraud designed to get a user’s credentials. Fraudsters send emails to wallet key owners that appear to be from a reputable source. The emails employ bogus URLs to request users’ credentials. Knowing a user’s credentials and other confidential material may lead to losses for the individual and the blockchain network.

Attacks on Routing

Blockchains rely on huge data transfers in real-time. Hackers can steal data as it is being sent to internet service providers. Because blockchain participants cannot perceive the threat in a routing attack, everything appears normal. However, criminals have grabbed private data or currency behind the scenes.

Sybil Attacks

In a Sybil assault, hackers establish and utilize many phony network identities to overwhelm the network and bring it down. Sybil is a well-known novel character who suffers from multiple identity disorder.

51% of the Attacks

Mining necessitates a significant amount of computational power, especially for large public blockchains. However, if a group of miners could pool enough resources, they might control over half of the mining power on a blockchain network. Having more than half of the power implies you have control over the ledger and can alter it.

It should be noted that private blockchains are still not subject to 51 percent attacks.

Enterprise Blockchain Security: 

When developing an enterprise blockchain application, it is critical to address security at all tiers of the technological stack, as well as how to handle network governance and permissions. A complete security plan for an enterprise blockchain system comprises both standard security controls and controls that are unique to the technology. Some of the security controls unique to business blockchain platforms are as follows:

  • Management of identity and access
  • Management of key personnel
  • Data security
  • Secure communication
  • Smart contract safety
  • Transaction approval

Employ specialists to assist you in designing a compliant and secure system to help you reach your company objectives. Look for a production-grade platform for creating blockchain applications that can be deployed in your preferred technological environment, whether on-premises or through your preferred cloud vendor.