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All You Need to Know About the Solana Hack 2022!

One of the strangest hacks in the crypto world occurred yesterday, The Solana Hack. Over $6,000,000 in Solana and USDC was stolen from over 8,000 Solana wallets. The hacker exploited private keys to steal user monies, making it one of the most puzzling thefts in the crypto sector to date. 

The reason for the attack and the degree of the damage is still being investigated; however, on Wednesday afternoon, the “Solana Status” Twitter account disclosed that the vulnerability appears to be connected to Slope wallets, a particular kind of bitcoin wallet platform created for Solana. And rather than a Solana blockchain compromise, private key (or password) information for such wallets “was accidentally provided to an application monitoring provider” at some time.

Phantom posted a tweet late on Wednesday afternoon stating that it believes the exploits are the result of “complications related to importing accounts to and from Slope” and that it is “still actively working to identify whether there may have been other vulnerabilities that contributed to this incident.”

Slope acknowledged that “a cohort of Slope wallets were compromised in the breach” in a statement but hasn’t disclosed the reason. “We have some hypotheses as to the nature of the breach, but nothing is yet firm… We are actively conducting internal investigations and audits, working with top external security and audit groups,” Slope wrote.


Here’s How The Solana Hack Happened

It all began when several people on Solana detected odd fund withdrawals from phantom wallets. As a result, several news stories of individuals mass-transferring money from their wallets surfaced on social media. This was addressed by Phantom, which said in a statement that it wasn’t a “Phantom-specific issue.”

Developer and auditor 0xfoobar discovered the theft of Solana and USDC from Slope and Phantom wallets a short while afterward.

El33th4xor, a co-founder of VAX, immediately said that the attacker was able to transfer the funds because they had access to private keys. There are two conceivable explanations in theory: One possibility for the hackers was to execute a “supply chain assault.” They have to break into the JS library and grab the private keys to do this. The alternative would be to use a browser vulnerability. However, this appears implausible given that several Internet systems would need to be impacted. In this hack, Solana was the only intruder. Emin Gün Sirer also acknowledged that coins on centralized exchanges and hardware wallets are not in danger.


Unreasonable Solana RPC Node Failures

Additionally, when specific RPC nodes began ping offline, the exploit worsened. This suggested that the Solana network was down, which increased the heated tone on Twitter.

A purported counter-attack on the hacker is the cause of this. The argument states that to slow down the hack, the developers need to have launched many DDos assaults against the nodes. The precise reason for the failure is yet unknown, though it is concerning.


Cryptocurrency Hacks Are Increasing; How Can You Protect Yourself?

The Solana exploit no longer an exceptional circumstance. Yesterday saw the fourth-largest breach in cryptocurrency history. More than $190 million was taken from the Nomad Bridge due to an upgrade issue. As a result, hackers are increasingly targeting the cryptocurrency business. 

The fact that hardware wallets are almost immune to hacks is awe-inspiring. That is why the phrase “Not your keys, not your coins” became popular in the cryptosphere. Therefore, you should consider using a hardware wallet if you want to be completely safe and shield your money from hacker assaults or bankruptcy. Only those who store their monies secretly will have a reasonable likelihood of avoiding such occurrences.

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Pros and Cons of Blockchain Technology?

Speaking of bitcoin without bringing up blockchain technology is practically impossible. Blockchain uses a peer-to-peer (P2P) network of computers to store data fragments securely. Additionally, smart contracts, decentralized transactions, and irreversible records are some of its essential elements.


But in addition to cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and Ethereum, blockchain technology offers a wide range of additional applications. Here is how blockchain functions, along with a detailed examination of its advantages, disadvantages, and future uses.


What is Blockchain?

Blockchain is an online database that keeps “blocks” of information organized by date. Blockchain is decentralized, in contrast to conventional databases that use a third party or intermediary, and these blocks are connected on what is known as the “chain.”

This implies that no outside party may watch over or meddle with transactions. The P2P computer network of nodes, or individual computers, which verifies all new data and disseminates cross-network duplicates of the blockchain to maintain its security, allows the blockchain system to self-regulate.

Blocks are the building blocks of blockchains. A timestamp, transaction information, and a mathematical function from the preceding block are all included in each block. This mathematical function, known as a cryptographic hash, from the previous block will be incorporated into the current block by computers that mine blocks or operate validating nodes that sign blocks to create a chain.

Pros and Cons of Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology has many advantages and disadvantages, but we’ll focus on the advantages first. The benefits of blockchain are listed below.



A distributed system is the first thing you get with blockchain. It implies that your system is free of any intermediaries. However, how is that advantageous? Intermediaries are frequently the intermediary who links you to your services. There is widespread corruption, and these middlemen often take advantage of businesses and customers for their financial benefit.

High-Quality Data

Blockchain technology’s degree of data quality is significant. It saves data in a distributed ledger system. How can it deliver reliable data? You should be aware that low-quality data does not become high-quality overnight. That isn’t how it works.

Anyhow, the consensus mechanism provided by this technology enables you to replace useless data with valuable data. This means that nobody can add any information to the ledger or even change the information already there.

Security and Resilience

Blockchain delivers the highest level of endurance. You may compare it to the internet since it has built-in reliability. In actuality, the technology’s general design is what makes it so robust. Additionally, it ensures that there is no single failure point or one person managing it by dispersing information block storage across the network.

Outstanding Integrity

The quality of integrity offered by blockchain is yet another fantastic benefit. So far, blockchain delivers the best level of integrity compared to any other network technology. What does that signify, though? In actuality, it implies that all of your data will always be accurate and that once it is entered into the ledger, it cannot be changed.

Furthermore, the information storage and consensus mechanisms are both reliable. Additionally, any user cannot just modify the verification as they wish. As a result, it would provide accurate and trustworthy data each time you transact or save any other information.

Transparency and Invariability

Blockchain is an immutable storage structure that prevents you from altering or erasing any data. As a result, if somebody tries to modify the data, everyone else would immediately see it. In any case, most of the ledger system using this technology is accessible to everyone. Information from the shared ledger is available for anybody to view at any moment, including on private blockchains.


In comparison to conventional methods, it also provides speedier transactions. Usually, it might take a long time for the centralized banks to complete a transaction. It offers quicker transactions in addition to a decreased transaction cost—nothing comes for free, unfortunately. When you do everyday business using traditional techniques, you must pay them something in return for their assistance.


Performance Redundancy

The distributed structure of the ledger system necessitates that every node has a copy of the system, which is why it must go through the same procedure repeatedly.

Complex Process for Verifying Signatures

The procedure for verifying signatures is another drawback. In essence, you’ll require a private-public cryptographic signature verification for each transaction in the system. The ECDSA is then utilized to guarantee that the transaction occurs between the proper nodes.

Private Keys

You need a private key to conduct transactions on the network. However, you’ll also lose access to your networked funds if you misplace your private key. It is no longer possible to retrieve them.

Lack of Internal Resources

There aren’t many skilled developers available to work on technology because it is still a relatively new notion. So, finding a competent team to handle the project becomes challenging when businesses attempt to construct their corporate blockchain solution.

Integrity Concerns

The integration procedure is still not working correctly. Many blockchain technologies cannot integrate with traditional networks. Many people have reservations about this.

Uncertainty of the Laws

Not all blockchain solutions include the correct set of network restrictions. As a result, many people have little faith in the system. On the other side, the idea of ICO fraud is introduced by the absence of regulation.

And it goes without saying that given the lack of cryptocurrency regulation, many people have been duped by ICO frauds. Since this industry is entirely regulated, governmental organizations also find it challenging to accept it.

Significant Energy Use

Every transaction must go through consensus procedures to guarantee its validity. Undoubtedly, forming each node in the consensus process takes tremendous work. Not to add, all nodes must exchange messages for a transaction to be legitimate.

Privacy Issues

Businesses must protect their privacy if they want to preserve the value of their brand. They cannot divulge their confidential knowledge to the general public or their rivals. As a result, many businesses aren’t all that interested in using blockchain for commercial operations.

High Price

Yes, compared to conventional infrastructure, blockchain is far less expensive. However, it might also be a costly option. In essence, the price is determined by the kind of function you want to add and your requirements. Furthermore, creating starch in a solution form costs a lot of money.

Pros and Cons: The Final Word

Blockchain technology is still a young one with a long road ahead. Therefore, it is extremely likely that it will have both benefits and drawbacks. 

However, you should be aware that blockchain has already addressed most of the problems and is working on finding a fresh approach to reduce the problems as much as possible.

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What Is Proof of History (PoH)?

Proof of History (PoH), developed by Solana, is a way of embedding time into the blockchain to reduce the strain on network nodes while processing blocks. In a classic blockchain, reaching an agreement on when a block was mined is equally as crucial as reaching an agreement on the transactions in that block. Timestamping is essential because it tells the network that transactions happened in a specified sequence.


In a Proof of Work (PoW) scenario, the successful block miner is the first to find the right nonce, which requires a certain amount of computing power. Verifiable Delay Functions are used in Proof of History (PoH) (VDFs). A VDF can only be solved by one CPU core following a particular procedure. It is easy to estimate the time required for each step because parallel processing is not allowed.


Proof of History (PoH) eliminates the time barrier by decreasing the processing weight, making blockchain efficient and faster. The security technique known as Tower BFT, which enables users to stake tokens to determine if a Proof of History (PoH) hash is genuine, is combined with Proof of History (PoH) in Solana.



Low Transaction Prices:

Solana has lower transaction fees than competing networks like Ethereum. As a result, Solana is an ideal solution for frequent purchases and money transfers.



The Solana network provides rapid transaction processing. As a result, the whole picture becomes more scalable.



To verify the legitimacy of transactions on its network, Solana currently makes use of fewer than 1,200 validators.


Solana is frequently described as an Ethereum killer; however, the network has fewer dApps in comparison. Solana has around 350 dApps, but Ethereum has nearly 3,000 dApps.


Proof of Stake vs. Proof of History (PoS)

The concepts of Proof of Stake and Proof of History are quite identical. This is because Proof of Stake turned into Proof of History. Both algorithms are based on the same principles. Both methods employ validators to ensure that transactions are verified, and new blocks are produced.


However, there is a considerable variation in how time is estimated between these two techniques. Proof of Stake uses the timestamp function. This implies that each node is dependent on the network’s timestamp. Because time must first pass via the network, the network will run slower.


This isn’t necessary with Proof of History since it uses the Verifiable Delay Function, which estimates time based on historical events. Following the analysis of these occurrences, a hash function is created; anybody can verify that. This hash is added to every block produced by the network. Since calculating time requires so little, the Solana blockchain is already highly scalable.


Issues with Proof of History (PoH)

PoH is a consensus process similar to Proof of Stake but utilizes a different time calculation algorithm. Historical events currently determine the passage of time. These events are combined to build a hash that preceding events can only create. In no way can the hash be fabricated.


Solana is the first blockchain to use the PoH algorithm. As a result, the blockchain is highly scalable, with the ability to execute up to 60,000 transactions every second. PoH ensures that identifying the timestamp of a transaction requires as little time as possible.


Proof of History, on the other hand, is riddled with problems. For example, because this strategy has never been tested on a large scale, we wouldn’t know if it works properly. Furthermore, several weaknesses and attacks in Solana have already been uncovered, some partially triggered by PoH. As a result, we are unsure if PoH is a secure consensus mechanism.

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What are Smart Contracts in Blockchain?

Smart Contracts increase transaction security and efficiency; therefore, they are a key component of blockchain technology. Not only that, but it also improves access to other components, such as applications running on different platforms.

How Does It Work?

Smart contracts are protocols or computer programs for automatic transactions maintained on a blockchain and activated in response to the fulfillment of specified requirements. In other words, smart contracts automate the execution of contracts so that all parties can quickly discern the result without needing a middleman or a waiting period.

These are self-executing contracts in which the terms of the buyer-seller contract are written directly into lines of code.

According to American computer scientist Nick Szabo, smart contracts are computerized transaction protocols that carry out contract terms. Szabo created the virtual currency “Bit Gold” in 1998.

Its use renders transactions visible, irrevocable, and traceable.

Advantages of Smart Contracts

Accuracy and Efficiency

The contract is instantly put into effect when a condition is satisfied. There is no paperwork to deal with, and no time was wasted fixing mistakes that might happen when filling out papers by hand because smart contracts are digital and automated.

Trust and Transparency

In this process, no third party is involved, and the people share encrypted transaction records; there is no need to be concerned about altering information for personal advantage.


The encrypted nature of blockchain transaction records makes them extremely difficult to hack. Additionally, hackers would need to alter the entire chain to alter a single record on a distributed ledger since each entry is connected to the entries that came before and after it.


Smart contracts do away with the need for middlemen and all associated costs and delays.

In What Steps Do Smart Contracts Operate?

A smart contract is a special program that runs on a specialized virtual machine that is integrated into a blockchain or other distributed ledger and encapsulates business logic.

Step 1: Business teams work with developers to specify their standards for the expected behavior of the smart contract in response to specific occurrences or conditions.

Step 2: Simple conditions include payment authorization, package receipt, or a utility meter reading threshold.

Step 3: More advanced logic may be used to encode more complicated actions, such as calculating the value of a derivative financial instrument or automatically disbursing an insurance payment.

Step 4: The developers create and test the logic using a platform for building smart contracts. Once written, the application is forwarded to a different team for security testing.

Step 5: You may use an internal specialist or a business that specializes in evaluating smart contract security.

Step 6: After the contract has been approved, it is used on an already-existing blockchain or other distributed ledger infrastructure.

Step 7: Once the smart contract has been implemented, it is set up to wait for event updates from an “oracle,” which is essentially a cryptographically secure streaming data source.

Step 8: The smart contract runs after receiving the required concatenation of events from one or more oracles.

What Makes It So Important?

Decentralized apps and currencies of all shapes and sizes may be created by developers using smart contracts. They are maintained on a blockchain like any other cryptocurrency transaction and are utilized in anything from new financial tools to logistics and gaming experiences. A smart-contract software is often irreversible once it is put into the blockchain.

Decentralized applications, often known as “dapps,” are driven by smart contracts and contain decentralized financial technology (also known as DeFi), which aspires to revolutionize the banking sector. DeFi apps enable cryptocurrency owners to conduct complicated financial activities, including saving, borrowing, and insurance, from anywhere in the globe without a bank or other financial institution getting a share. Current apps that use smart contracts and are more widely used include:

Uniswap: A decentralized exchange that lets users trade certain types of cryptocurrency using smart contracts without any central body controlling exchange rates.

Compound: A platform that utilizes smart contracts to enable borrowers to get loans promptly and investors to earn interest without needing a bank to act as a middleman.

USDC: A cryptocurrency linked to the US dollar via a smart contract, making one USDC equal to one USD. Stablecoins, a more recent subset of digital currency, including UDDC.

So, how would you use these technologies that are enabled by smart contracts? Consider that you have some Ethereum that you would like to exchange for USDC. Put some Ethereum into Uniswap, which will use a smart contract to locate the best exchange rate automatically, execute the deal, and pay you your USDC. Then, without utilizing a bank or other financial institution, you might put part of your USDC into Compound to lend to others and obtain an algorithmically set interest rate.

Currency exchanges in conventional finance are pricy and time-consuming. Additionally, lending liquid assets to total strangers on the other side of the globe is neither simple nor secure for individuals to do. But all of those scenarios—as well as a wide range of others—are made conceivable by smart contracts.

Smart Contracts: Their Limitations

Smart contracts cannot obtain information about “real-world” events since they cannot make HTTP inquiries. This is intentional. The consensus required for security and decentralization might be compromised by using external data.


Smart contracts can potentially transform how international business and commerce are conducted by speeding up transactions, decreasing bureaucracy, and increasing cost-efficiency. Smart contracts might significantly impact various industries, including the arts, music, real estate, banking, manufacturing, retail, supply chain, and telecommunications. If you’re interested in blockchain and smart contract applications, Kryptomind offers the top smart contract developers you can connect with.

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5 Interesting Facts About Blockchain You Didn’t Know!

Although blockchain has drawn a lot of attention as the basis for cryptocurrency transactions, the technology is helpful for more than just keeping track of who has traded bitcoins for whom. At its most basic, blockchain is an open ledger that nobody controls. Sure, it’s a financial transaction technology, but because it’s decentralized, people, corporations, and governments may use it to record all information exchanges.

Blockchain technology is emerging just as the digital world requires it. The ability to construct a distributed, verifiable and tamper-proof online ledger provides businesses with a tool that may make trust-intensive choices considerably easier. So, how exactly does it work? Simply put, a blockchain is a chain of unique digital data saved across a network of computers. When a validated interaction occurs, a new block of unique digital information is added to the blockchain, and the blockchain is updated across the whole distributed network.

The following are some facts about blockchain technology:

1. The Invention of Blockchain and Bitcoin 

The Blockchain and Bitcoin Inventor Satoshi Nakamoto is the creator of both bitcoin and blockchain technology. However, nobody knows who Satoshi Nakamoto is. However, other people believe that the father of Bitcoin is a guy of Western American origin in Temple City, Los Angeles named Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto.

Several coincidences happened at that time. For instance, the first person to acquire a bitcoin trade was computer scientist Hal Finney, who lived next door to Nakamoto. Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, however, disputed it at the time. As a result, we have yet to learn the true identity of this bitcoin inventor.

2. Crypto-friendly and Blockchain Countries

Switzerland, Gibraltar, and Malta will be the most advocated blockchain and crypto-friendly countries on the earth. Switzerland, for example, has the world’s most stable market and has been receptive to blockchain and cryptocurrencies. Gibraltar was the first country to implement and facilitate cryptocurrency trading to establish a fiscal service commission.

The primary goal of this commission is to provide a permit for ICO operations. Furthermore, it keeps those firms dealing with crypto on track. Malta is a blockchain island and is considered the epicenter of blockchain development.

It is regarded as the origin of its blockchain and other crypto firms. It is the first option for those ready to start their own business and operate from the world-class blockchain.

3. Increased Blockchain Adoption

Blockchain will be one of the era’s prominent technologies. According to an industry survey, 40 million individuals have begun to learn about this technology, many of whom apply it for business purposes. In the next ten decades, the quantity will increase by up to 80%.

Many organizations and corporations use digital currencies as payment methods because they allow them to bypass traditional financial transactions’ difficulties while still providing access to worldwide cash exchanges.

4. Blockchain Technology in the Global Market

The development of blockchain technology is still in its early stages, but progress is being made at a rapid rate. Most companies have started implementing this technology to offer the modifications necessary to update outdated systems. The market for blockchain technology is projected to reach around $60 million by 2024, in line with an industry study and inspection findings.

5. Transactions Through Blockchain

Blockchain technology transactions are significantly quicker than those carried out using conventional methods. This might result in significant transaction cost savings, particularly for international transactions. This is the most crucial reason that several institutions, such as American Express and ALFA banks, have started incorporating blockchain technology to build more economically viable versions of their services.

Based on the data stated above, it is apparent that blockchain technology will be the leading technology, and it is projected to take over the globe in the following years.

Are you interested in implementing blockchain technology in your business? Choose the blockchain development firm leading the pack so that you can quickly find the finest answers to your significant problems and improve your business to an extended degree. Kryptomind is a leading blockchain development company that can help you with all blockchain projects.

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Learn About Rollup Protocol

The Optimistic Rollup is the key concept that enables optimism. We’ll go through a high-level explanation of how Optimistic Rollups function. Then we’ll describe why Optimism is designed as an Optimistic Rollup and why we feel it’s the greatest option for a system that meets all of our design objectives.

Optimistic Rollups TL;DR

Optimism is an “Optimistic Rollup,” which is a fancy way of saying a blockchain that benefits from the security of another “parent” blockchain. Specifically, Optimistic Rollups use their parent chain’s consensus process (such as PoW or PoS) rather than supplying their own. This parent blockchain in Optimism’s instance is Ethereum.

Block Storage

All Optimism blocks are saved in a special Ethereum smart contract called the CanonicalTransactionChain (opens in a new window) (or CTC for short). Inside the CTC, optimism blocks are stored in an append-only list (we’ll describe how blocks are added to this list in the following section). The Optimism blockchain is formed by this append-only list.

The CanonicalTransactionChain comprises code that ensures that new Ethereum transactions cannot modify the existing list of blocks. This promise, however, can be violated if the Ethereum blockchain is rearranged and the sequencing of previous Ethereum transactions is altered. The Optimism mainnet is built to withstand block reorganisations of up to 50 Ethereum blocks. If Ethereum undergoes a broader reorg, Optimism will also undergo a reorg.

Avoiding such major block reorganisations is a core security aim of Ethereum. Optimism is, therefore, safe from huge block reorganisations as long as the Ethereum consensus process is. Optimism obtains its security features from Ethereum (at least in part) through this link.

Block Production

The production of optimism blocks is generally coordinated by a single entity known as the “sequencer,” who assists the network by offering the following services:

Offering real-time transaction confirmations and status changes.

L2 block construction and execution

L1 is receiving user transactions.

There is no mempool in the sequencer. Thus, transactions are accepted or denied in the order they were received. When a user submits a transaction to the sequencer, it validates it (pays a suitable fee) and then adds the transaction to its local state as a pending block. These pending blocks are frequently submitted to Ethereum in big batches for finalization. This batching approach drastically decreases overall transaction expenses by distributing fixed costs and transactions within a batch. The sequencer employs some rudimentary compression methods to reduce the quantity of data broadcast to Ethereum.

Because the sequencer has priority write access to the L2 chain, it can ensure what state will be completed as soon as it settles on a new pending block. In other words, the consequence of the transaction is accurately known. As a result, the L2 state may be changed consistently and fast. This provides a quick, rapid user experience, with features such as near-real-time Uniswap pricing changes.

Alternately, users can completely omit the sequencer and instead submit their transactions to the CanonicalTransactionChain by means of an Ethereum transaction. One is often more expensive since the user pays the whole fixed cost of submitting this transaction, which is not amortized across many such transactions. However, this alternate submission approach has the advantage of being immune to sequencer censoring. Even if the sequencer deliberately blocks a user, they may still utilize Optimism and use this approach to get their money back.

For the time being, the lone block producer is Optimism PBC.

Block Execution

Ethereum nodes obtain blocks from Ethereum’s peer-to-peer network. Instead, optimism nodes download blocks straight from the CanonicalTransactionChain contract’s append-only list of blocks. For additional details on how blocks are kept within this contract, see the section on block storage above.

The Optimism client software and the Ethereum data indexer are the two main components of Optimism nodes. The Ethereum data indexer (or DTL) rebuilds the Optimism blockchain from blocks submitted to the CanonicalTransactionChain contract. The DTL looks for events generated by the CanonicalTransactionChain that indicate the publication of fresh Optimism blocks. It then looks at the transactions that generated these events to recreate the published blocks using the typical Ethereum block format.

The Optimism client program, the second component of the Optimism node, is a nearly vanilla version of Geth. This implies that behind the hood, Optimism is nearly identical to Ethereum. Specifically, Optimism and Ethereum share the same Ethereum Virtual Machine , account and state structure, gas metering system, and fee schedule. This design is known as “EVM Equivalence”, and it implies that the majority of Ethereum tools (including the most complicated ones) “simply work” with Optimism.

The DTL is constantly monitored by the Optimism client program for freshly indexed blocks. When a new block is indexed, the client program downloads it and performs the transactions contained inside it. To execute a transaction on Optimism, use the identical steps as on Ethereum: first, load the Optimism state, then apply the transaction against it. Finally, record the state changes that arise. This method is then repeated for each new DTL-indexed block.

Bridging Assets Between Layers

Optimism allows users to transmit arbitrary messages between Optimism and Ethereum smart contracts. This allows assets, especially ERC20 tokens, to be transferred across the two networks. The precise technique by which this communication takes place varies based on the direction in which information is transmitted.

This capability of the Standard bridge is used by Optimism to enable users to transfer assets (ERC20 tokens and ETH) from Ethereum to Optimism. Users can withdraw the same assets from Optimism and send them back to Ethereum. 

Transitioning from Ethereum to Optimism

Users merely need to activate the CanonicalTransactionChain contract on Ethereum to generate a new block on the Optimism block to convey messages from Ethereum to Optimism. For further information, see the section on block creation above. Blocks that users generate may include transactions that seem to come from that address.

Moving from Optimism to Ethereum

In the same manner that Ethereum contracts may easily produce transactions on Optimism, this is not feasible for contracts on Optimism. As a result, returning data from Optimism to Ethereum requires a little more effort. We need to be able to make verifiable claims about the optimism of Ethereum-based contracts rather than automatically producing verified transactions.

Making claims about the state of optimism that can be proven needs a cryptographic commitment in the form of the trie’s root. This commitment will alter after each block since optimism’s status is changed. Approximately once or twice per hour, a smart contract on Ethereum called the StateCommitmentChain publishes commitments.

Users can use these promises to produce Merkle tree proofs regarding the optimistic situation. Ethereum smart contracts can verify these proofs. The L1CrossDomainMessenger, a handy cross-chain communication contract that Optimism manages, may validate these proofs on behalf of other contracts.

These proofs may support verifiable claims regarding the information stored in any contract on Optimism at a particular block height. Then, using this fundamental capability, it will be possible for contracts on Optimism to communicate with contracts on Ethereum. Contracts on Optimism can utilize the L2ToL1MessagePasser contract (predeployed to the Optimism network) to store a message in the state of Optimism. Users may then demonstrate to Ethereum contracts that a certain Optimism contract wanted to deliver a specific message by demonstrating that the L2ToL1MessagePasser contract has saved the message’s hash.

Fault proofs

Fault proofs Instead, for a while, these promises are regarded as pending (called the “challenge window”). A proposed state commitment is deemed final if it is not contested during the challenge window, which is presently set to seven days. On Ethereum, smart contracts may securely receive evidence about the status of Optimism based on a commitment after it is deemed to be final.

When a state promise is contested, a “defect proof” procedure—previously known as a “fraud-proof” method—can be used to render it invalid. If the challenge is successful, the commitment is withdrawn from the StateCommitmentChain, at which point another proposed commitment will take its place. It’s crucial to understand that only the publicly available promises on the status of the chain are reversed by a successful challenge, not Optimism itself. A fault-proof challenge leaves the transaction sequencing and optimism unaltered.

The November 11th EVM Equivalence update is adversely influencing the fault-proof process, which is now undergoing significant rebuilding. The Protocol specifications area of this website has further information about this procedure.

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NFTs VS Crypto: Which One is Better?

NFTs, Cryptocurrencies, Web 3.0, Bitcoin or even Ethereum, the crypto world might appear complex, confusing and outwardly weird to someone who has never personally engaged with these things before.

The introduction of Blockchain and the technologies it enables represents a paradigm shift on par with the introduction of the internet itself. People’s reactions to Blockchain-based technologies today are similar to how they responded to the early days of the internet, which included skepticism, enthusiasm and downright terror.

The two most significant unknowns in technology manifest as Cryptocurrencies and NFTs. Therefore, you must understand what they are and how they are entirely different from each other. 

What are Cryptocurrencies?

Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies. The name “crypto” refers to the fact that these currencies (also known as digital tokens) are secured via a technique known as cryptography, which means they are highly secure and impossible to double-spend or duplicate.

This security is achieved through various mechanisms (including public-private key pairs, encryption algorithms and more), each of which has controversy. Still, for this explainer, it’s enough to know that cryptocurrencies are essentially a digital form of money — which is why digital tokens are frequently referred to as “X-coin.”

Ethereum (ETH) and Bitcoin (BTC) are the most well-known cryptocurrencies, each operating within their Blockchain system, although hundreds of other cryptocurrencies exist across dozens of Blockchain platforms.

What’s an NFT?

NFT stands for non-fungible token. They are digital tokens, similar to cryptocurrencies but unlike fungible. They are cryptographic assets that live on the Blockchain.

The most common comparison here is between physical money and distinct physical items people buy because they are unique. We talked about how cryptocurrencies are fungible, which means that the same amount of ETH in your digital wallet and ETH in someone else’s wallet has the same value and function.

Consider a tangible thing that is unique to you and exists just once. This could be a portrait you bought, a collectible like a playing card or a stamp or a signed copy of the first edition of a book you love.

These things can’t be changed. If someone asked you to trade your signed copy of the first edition of a book for a signed copy of the fifth edition, we hope you would say no. Even though they both have the exact words, they are not identical and can’t be changed.

What’s the Major Difference?

The most significant difference is that cryptocurrencies can be exchanged with each other, while NFTs are all different and have different values.

How crypto coins are put into circulation is another difference. NFTs are made, while coins are “mined”. It’s a complicated process, but in a nutshell, a miner is a computer that does accounting work on the Blockchain and gets paid in new coins.

To “mine” an NFT, you must turn a file into a token that can be used on a Blockchain. The Blockchain checks the transaction and adds a fee to it.

Which One is Really Better?

Both have various uses and can’t be compared with each other. NFTs and Cryptocurrencies are built on Blockchain and employ the same technology and ideas. They thus frequently attract others of similar backgrounds. However, they are entirely unlike in terms of their identities and ways of working.

– Trading


Since NFTs are bought and exchanged online and kept in a digital ledger, they cannot be traded. Instead of purchasing a tangible image to place on the wall, the buyer receives an original digital file.


Cryptocurrencies may be traded or swapped without losing any value. Based on Blockchain technology, their peer-to-peer system allows anybody to make and receive payments in any digital cash or cryptocurrency.

– Uses


Each non-fungible token shows that a digital asset is unique and can’t be traded with anything else. Due to the cryptographic principles of the Blockchain, an NFT can never be modified, edited, or stolen.


Like traditional currencies, it is a means of exchanging digital information while avoiding existing currency difficulties. It enables speedy, safe & decentralized transactions and the purchase & payment of products & services.

– Volatility 


NFTs are claimed to be less volatile than cryptocurrencies. The creative, aesthetic side of NFTs has drawn both artists and traders. However, it may prevent people who find the work of creating NFTs too challenging, complex or cumbersome.


As crypto opponents and authorities have often indicated in their criticism of cryptocurrencies, in particular, are viewed as high-risk investments. Specific cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, have been designed to be more stable than others.

The Final Verdict? 

NFTs are now a good choice for artistic people who want to make money from their digital work. Because of the market’s creative, artistic component, artists and traders have been drawn to it. Cryptocurrency, on the other hand, is a bit surprising. It is used for trading, on the other hand some cryptocurrencies were intentionally built to be more stable than others. Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies with lower volatility than others, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.

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The Parachain Advantage

How Parachains Work

The heterogeneous multichain approach developed by Polkadot in 2016 enables numerous, independent blockchains with specialized functionality to cooperate under a single layer of security.

The Polkadot network’s backbone comprises layer-1 next-generation blockchains called parachains, which put the “multi” in multichain and establish a free alliance of independent chains. In this network of layer-1 parachains, Polkadot serves as the foundational and supporting layer-0 protocol. Thanks to Polkadot’s cross-chain interoperability, any kind of data or asset may be transmitted between parachains, ushering in a new paradigm of interchain services, organizations, and economies. Polkadot’s multichain design enables it to be the foundation for a new, decentralized internet that its creator Dr. Gavin Wood has dubbed “Web3.”

As opposed to just depending on layer-2 scaling solutions, the parachain approach scales blockchain technology in a much more decentralized and trustless manner. A single group of decentralized validators secures many blockchains where transactions can occur “in parallel” or concurrently.

In Polkadot’s expanding ecosystem, over competing technologies, more than 130 blockchain development teams worldwide are creating and launching their parachains, mainly due to the clear benefits the parachain architecture offers them. Several parachains are already up and running in Kusama, Polkadot’s “canary network,” and they have handled several thousand transactions since the summer of 2021.

The Principal Advantages Of Parachains:

The parachain architecture developed by Polkadot opens up new vistas of potential for blockchain systems and the future of Web3. Due in part to the fact that the parachain model offers so many advantages, it might be challenging to summarise its genuine worth. 

Only a few examples of them are as follows:


The parachain concept was developed with the idea that many different kinds of blockchains will collaborate in the future of Web3. This is because no specific blockchain design is ideal for all use cases. Each chain has trade-offs that make it more suited for some applications than others.

Blockchains must offer a range of services, much as the existing internet adapts to varied needs: one chain may be created for gaming, another for identity and access management, another for financial, etc. Polkadot establishes the framework for a blockchain internet by linking these several chains.

For practically any blockchain use case, parachains may be customized, and they can serve as a tool for testing out novel use cases, particularly on Kusama. Because of their specialization, parachains can accomplish more as a group than any one chain could achieve on its own, fostering the development of a vibrant ecosystem for decentralized enterprises.


When constructing a chain, parachain developers have the most significant amount of flexibility, thanks to Polkadot. The sole technical prerequisite for a parachain is its ability to demonstrate to Polkadot verifiers that each of its blocks complies with the established protocol. Beyond that, the possibilities for creating the ideal chain for a certain use case or collection of uses are endless.

Compared to those that build on top of a smart contract platform, blockchain developers have significantly more flexibility when creating a parachain. Developers that construct at the smart contract layer are constrained by the blockchain’s underlying architectural choices, which might not be ideal for their use case. With Polkadot, developers may go deep into the layer-1 parachain’s internal reasoning, opening them a myriad of additional opportunities for optimization.

The parachain model’s adaptability allows for the broadest range of blockchain technology variations, fostering innovation in Web3 and avoiding the drawbacks and mistakes of earlier blockchain networks.


The ability of blockchains with different designs to communicate with one another is a crucial component of parachain architecture. Blockchains are no longer remote islands that are cut off from one another because of Polkadot’s interoperability, also based on cross composability. By building a decentralized, interconnected internet of blockchains where previously there were just isolated networks to their tribalistic communities, parachains put an end to the age of walled blockchains.

Importantly, Polkadot enables parachains to communicate any kind of data, not only tokens, between one other, creating a range of new blockchain use cases. Instead of being restricted to the functionality of just one blockchain, Polkadot developers may develop services that utilize the advantages of several chains.

When you compare the effects of free trade and isolationism on economies, you can see the actual value of interoperability. Each blockchain is comparable to a separate, sovereign state with its internal society and economy. Accordingly, the parachain model offers a robust framework for international free trade, abolishing the isolationism and balkanization that impede economic growth and restrict the effect of each chain separately.


In contrast to just depending on layer 2, the parachain paradigm allows Polkadot to scale at layer 1, which is more decentralized and effective. However, layer-2 solutions can also be included in parachains, significantly enhancing scalability. With Polkadot, transactions may be dispersed throughout a network of specialized layer-1 blockchains and processed concurrently, greatly enhancing throughput and scalability compared to non-sharded networks.

Decentralization, data availability, and security will all still be maintained as Polkadot improves scalability and transaction throughput in the future, thanks to several improvements that have been suggested. The final item is crucial because other networks could favor TPS at the cost of these crucial elements, but giving up decentralization for throughput violates Web3’s fundamental goal.

No Platform Costs

Polkadot-connected Parachains have unlimited access to computational power without paying extra fees or “gas” prices. Due to Polkadot’s versatility, parachain developers and dapp developers can design any price system they see fit for their customers.

The best part is that users of parachains don’t even need to be aware they’re dealing with a blockchain or that they need to own DOT tokens to access applications and services. In this way, a substantial obstacle to usability and acceptance that occurs with traditional networks may be removed by blockchain technology thanks to the parachain paradigm. Imagine if you had to carry a specific token and pay the price each time you wanted to use an app on your phone. Eliminating platform costs for consumers will be a key factor in the widespread adoption of Web3.


New blockchains often need to establish a network of validators to bootstrap their security. Due to the difficulty and length of this procedure, many blockchains have a degree of security that makes them susceptible to assaults.

When linking to Polkadot, parachains instantly receive strong security. Newer blockchain teams may quickly obtain security akin to a bank because of this built-in safety mechanism, also known as shared security. Additionally, it lowers their entrance hurdles and drastically shortens the time needed to create a new network.


Technology is constantly evolving in our environment; one day, it may be cutting edge, and the next, it may be outdated. Like any software, blockchains require regular upgrades to integrate new features as they become available, address issues, and incorporate more sophisticated technology. However, modernizing traditional blockchains is a time-consuming process that sometimes involves “forking” or breaking the chain, which hinders innovation and occasionally splits communities.

Upgrades that are simpler and “forkless” are available for Polkadot and its parachains. As a result, parachains may be quickly updated following the desires of their communities, enabling them to be prepared for what the future may bring. With the parachain concept, blockchains may more easily change and adapt to new situations, ensuring their continued relevance as new technologies are developed.

Independent and Adaptable Governance

On Polkadot, parachains are free to use any governance model they see appropriate and have access to various pre-built modules for setting up different on-chain governance systems. The possibility of hard forks of their chain, which run the danger of dividing their communities in two, may be considerably reduced by teams thanks to the availability of advanced on-chain governance systems.

In addition, on-chain governance offers parachain communities a way to be transparent and responsible, which is necessary for many organizations and fiduciaries who frequently need to witness transparent decision-making procedures before using blockchain technology. A robust system of governance, when combined with Polkadot’s forkless upgrading function, enables parachains to keep their competitive edge while simultaneously fostering community cohesiveness and guaranteeing that all stakeholders have a vote in the network’s destiny.

Financial Services

To obtain financial autonomy and operate independently to support activities in accordance with the wishes of their communities, parachains might make use of on-chain treasuries. Treasury-enabled parachain communities can readily assume the shape of a DAO when combined with on-chain governance (decentralized autonomous organization).

This allows for new decentralized finance models, including cross-chain mergers and acquisitions, decentralized charity, decentralized sovereign wealth funds, and funding for network-beneficial initiatives. Blockchains may now “act in the world” financially thanks to the parachain paradigm, which was previously only available to centralized organizations and businesses.

Effortless Development

In the end, the advantages listed above wouldn’t matter much if creating a parachain was an impossible task. However, various development tools are available to parachain development teams, making it simpler than ever to create a blockchain.

The main Polkadot parachain SDK, Substrate, is a blockchain development platform created by Parity Technologies that helps teams greatly minimize the effort and complexity of creating a parachain. With Substrate, developers may utilize pre-built modules for typical blockchain characteristics that can be combined and reconfigured, like blockchain building bricks, to construct the unique parachain most appropriate for their use case.

With parachains, what once required years of laborious effort with sizable teams of experienced engineers may now be completed in a few weeks with the resources of a young company.

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What Is Blockchain Security?

The data format created by blockchain technology has built-in security features. It is based on consensus, decentralization, and cryptographic principles to guarantee transaction trust. Most distributed ledger technologies (DLT) and blockchain systems group data into blocks, each containing a transaction or sequence of transactions. A cryptographic chain is almost impossible to alter since every new block connects to every block that came before it. Each transaction within a block is verified and approved by a consensus mechanism, ensuring its veracity and accuracy.

Blockchain technology offers decentralization by enabling participation from members of a distributed network. The transaction record cannot be changed by a single user, and there is no single point of failure. However, blockchain technology differs significantly in terms of security.

What Are The Security Differences Between Blockchain Types?

Blockchain networks might differ regarding who can participate and who controls the data. Networks are often classified as public or private based on who is permitted to join and permissionless or permissioned based on how members access the network.

Public Blockchain

Public blockchain networks often enable anybody to join and members to remain anonymous. A public blockchain validates transactions and achieves consensus using internet-connected machines. Bitcoin is the most well-known public blockchain example, and it obtains consensus through “bitcoin mining.” The bitcoin network’s computers, or “miners,” attempt to solve a complicated cryptographic challenge to generate proof of work and confirm the transaction. This network has few identification and access constraints other than public keys.

Private Blockchain

Private blockchains usually allow only known organizations to join and utilize identities to validate membership and access credentials. The groups join together to build a secret, members-only “business network.” In a permissioned network, a private blockchain obtains consensus using a process known as “selective endorsement,” in which recognized users validate the transactions. Members can only maintain the transaction ledger with particular access and permissions. More identification and access constraints are required for this network type.

When developing a blockchain application, it is crucial to determine which form of the network would best meet your business objectives. For laws and regulatory reasons, private and permissioned networks are ideal. On the other hand, public and permissionless networks can achieve more decentralization and diffusion.

Public blockchains are open to the public, and anybody may join and validate transactions.

Private blockchains are mainly restricted to commercial networks. A single organization or consortium controls membership.

The number of processors participating in a permissionless blockchain is not limited.

Permissioned blockchains are only accessible to a specific group of users who have been issued identities via certificates.


While blockchain technology generates a tamper-proof database of transactions, blockchains are not susceptible to cyberattacks and fraud. Those with malicious intent can exploit known blockchain technology flaws and have succeeded in various hacks and scams. 

How Do Scammers Exploit Blockchain Technology?

Hackers and fraudsters threaten blockchains in four ways: phishing, routing, Sybil, and 51 percent assaults.

Phishing Attempts

Phishing is a fraud designed to get a user’s credentials. Fraudsters send emails to wallet key owners that appear to be from a reputable source. The emails employ bogus URLs to request users’ credentials. Knowing a user’s credentials and other confidential material may lead to losses for the individual and the blockchain network.

Attacks on Routing

Blockchains rely on huge data transfers in real-time. Hackers can steal data as it is being sent to internet service providers. Because blockchain participants cannot perceive the threat in a routing attack, everything appears normal. However, criminals have grabbed private data or currency behind the scenes.

Sybil Attacks

In a Sybil assault, hackers establish and utilize many phony network identities to overwhelm the network and bring it down. Sybil is a well-known novel character who suffers from multiple identity disorder.

51% of the Attacks

Mining necessitates a significant amount of computational power, especially for large public blockchains. However, if a group of miners could pool enough resources, they might control over half of the mining power on a blockchain network. Having more than half of the power implies you have control over the ledger and can alter it.

It should be noted that private blockchains are still not subject to 51 percent attacks.

Enterprise Blockchain Security: 

When developing an enterprise blockchain application, it is critical to address security at all tiers of the technological stack, as well as how to handle network governance and permissions. A complete security plan for an enterprise blockchain system comprises both standard security controls and controls that are unique to the technology. Some of the security controls unique to business blockchain platforms are as follows:

  • Management of identity and access
  • Management of key personnel
  • Data security
  • Secure communication
  • Smart contract safety
  • Transaction approval

Employ specialists to assist you in designing a compliant and secure system to help you reach your company objectives. Look for a production-grade platform for creating blockchain applications that can be deployed in your preferred technological environment, whether on-premises or through your preferred cloud vendor.

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What Is NFT Metadata

NFT metadata is a crucial element of NFT projects and blockchain technology. Digital assets are tracked, and their owners are identified using them. This blog article will examine NFT Metadata and its application to blockchain technology. 

NFT Metadata

The metadata of an NFT describes the digital asset’s extra attributes and characteristics. This can contain the item’s creation date and time, the name and contact details of the creator, an explanation of the asset, and searchable keywords. Blockchain ledgers that hold metadata enable NFT owners to keep track of and maintain their assets.

An NFT maker can create something that is one-of-a-kind and hard to replicate because of the metadata. As a result, investors and collectors are very interested in NFTs with comprehensive metadata.

Where is the NFT Metadata Kept?

NFTs are kept in the decentralized IPFS (interplanetary file system), a group of machines that interact using the same protocol. To support a large number of users and NFTs, the system is distributed and scalable. The interplanetary file system’s resistance to censorship and data loss is its key benefit. This is so that if one node in the network goes offline, it won’t impact the other nodes since the data is dispersed among several distinct nodes.

The interplanetary file system has the drawback of being slower and less effective than other storage systems. However, this compromise is worthwhile for many users who prioritize censorship resistance and data confidentiality.

This distinguishes and adds value to NFTs: since their data is kept on the blockchain, they cannot be duplicated or altered. A token that reflects the underlying data is what you purchase when buying an NFT. The data is unchangeable and stored safely on the Ethereum blockchain. As a result, using NFTs to acquire and sell digital assets is safe.

Off-Chain NFT Storage

Your NFTs are entrusted to a third-party service when you store them off-chain, such as with a cloud storage provider like Google Drive or AWS. Your NFTs are tracked by this service, which also makes sure they’re always available to you. One should be aware that off-chain storage of NFTs has several dangers. First, your NFTs can be permanently lost if the provider goes out of business. Second, your NFTs could’ve been taken if the service had been hacked.

Your NFTs can become unreachable due to the service, which would prohibit you from trading or transferring them. Therefore, before choosing, it is crucial to consider the advantages and disadvantages of holding your NFTs off-chain.

NFT Metadata With JSON Data

To mint an NFT, you must first produce a JSON file with the necessary NFT information that describes what the token represents.

A JSON file format for encoding metadata will soon be implemented on the Ethereum network, making it simpler for NFTs to communicate with smart contracts. Developers may store JSON information on the Ethereum blockchain thanks to the ERC 721 Ethereum NFT standard.

This is especially helpful for NFTs, which frequently require to contain extra information like the name of the artist, a description of the NFT, or license details. The web3 API and other JSON-based systems, such as them, are more easily interoperable with NFTs thanks to the JSON standard. Additionally, it enables metadata-based querying and filtering of NFTs.

A few crucial data bits must be present in the JSON file for constructing NFT metadata. You must first give the NFT a unique identification. It may be a URL or another distinctive string. The NFT’s description, title, and keywords must be added, along with some other foundational metadata.

The file type for the NFT itself should also be specified. Doing this will make it possible for people to interact with it and show it properly. You may generate a whole and valuable JSON file for your NFTs by including these necessary data bits.

NFT Metadata Technicalities:

The following NFT discussion will employ the traditional Ethereum ERC-721 token standard.

The description of each ERC-721 includes a “metadata” string that describes the non-fungible token in detail. For instance, this information may identify a certain. JPEG, yet a CryptoPunk.JPEG and a DeadFellaz.JPEG differ significantly. Although JPEG files are similar in size, their values are very different.

The main issue that confuses people regarding NFT metadata is where files are stored off-chain—is it anything like Google Drive? Is it a storage area for files on Amazon Web Services? Who oversees the online storage of NFT metadata?

Each NFT refers to online-based audio or visual (image, audio, etc.) asset. It sends a request to a particular place for the material, returning the requested content for you to view or hear. NFTs often point to an HTTP URL or an IPFS  hash that is located online.

ERC-721s specify metadata in a standardized JSON format, which resembles this: ERC-721s specify metadata in a standardized JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format, which often is maintained by the website that hosts the NFT.

    "title": "Asset Metadata",
    "type": "object",
    "properties": {
        "name": {
            "type": "string",
            "description": "Identifies the asset to which this NFT represents",
        "description": {
            "type": "string",
            "description": "Describes the asset to which this NFT represents",
        "image": {
            "type": "string",
            "description": "A URI pointing to a resource with mime type image/* representing the asset to which this NFT represents. Consider making any images at a width between 320 and 1080 pixels and aspect ratio between 1.91:1 and 4:5 inclusive.",

Since storing a JSON would be excessively costly and resource-demanding, the data is kept as a URI  inside the Ethereum contract. However, the URI string directs the visitor to a page where they may get the JSON description of the token.

On the blockchain, the token’s metadata is a permanent, irrevocable record containing information about its ownership, what it stands for, and its transaction history. The image’s name, description, URL for hosting, and occasionally other specific information like the project’s total supply, the type of encryption used, and a unique signature are all contained in the JSON file.

NFTs’ Limitations

Typically, this JSON metadata just serves to identify the object and doesn’t offer any further information beyond the absolute minimum.

Multiple initiatives are aiming to fix the Ethereum network’s flaw and restriction that the data isn’t particularly searchable or accessible by other smart contracts.

The token issuers, the legal owners of the NFT contract, provide the data. For better or worse, users cannot update the data, which can be difficult for several reasons.

Links can break, as we have observed in the changing Internet ecology. Since the NFT metadata contains a link that directs you to another location where you may view the art, if that link is broken, you will be required to a highly costly 404 error page. Users are unable to change either the JSON data or the links.

The main problem is that the NFT’s inherent worth may be in jeopardy if the data could be updated. The market would react, most certainly severely, if, for instance, a hostile third party discovered an exploit to replace all of the Bored Ape Yacht Club image information with images of real apes found on Google.